Flora is basically the plant life that is present in a particular region or habitat or at a particular time and fauna is the animal life that is present in a particular region or habitat or at a particular time. Biodiversity is a very large topic and somewhat difficult to define adequately in only a sentence or two. In the very simplest terms, "biodiversity" means the diversity of life on our planet, which includes genetic diversity, species diversity, and habitat diversity. U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment has defined bodiversity as "Biological diversity is the variety and variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur. Diversity can be defined as the number of different items and their relative frequency. For biological diversity, these items are organized at many levels, ranging from complete ecosystems to the chemical structures that are the molecular basis of heredity. Thus, the term encompasses different ecosystems, species, genes, and their relative abundance." The area of flora, fauna and biodiversity is quite interrelated. Flora and fauna forms a major part of biodiversity.
India is a land of varied flora, fauna and biodiversity.
India is one of the twelve megadiverse nations of the World. Two of India's
great mountain ranges, the Eastern Himalayas and the Western Ghats have
been designated among the world's eighteen 'hotspots' of biodiversity.
But In the last few decades we have seen a steady increase in the extinction
rate of flora, fauna etc. all over world including India and so now, conservation
of biological diversity is of paramount importance to the survival of
man. Conservation of biological diversity leads to conservation of essential
ecological diversity to preserve the continuity of food chains. The genetic
diversity of plants and animals is preserved. It ensures the sustainable
utilisation of life support systems on earth. It provides a vast knowledge
of potential use to the scientific community. A reservoir of wild animals
and plants is preserved, thus enabling them to be introduced, if need
be, in the surrounding areas. Biological diversity provides immediate
benefits to the society such as recreation and tourism. Biodiversity conservation
serves as an insurance policy for the future.
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